Desempleo y la importancia de la educación

Entre los más afectados está la gente joven. En el mundo hay aproximadamente 600 millones de personas jóvenes, entre 15 y 24 años. Alrededor de 75 millones de esas personas jóvenes (12 %) están desempleadas, lo que es más o menos el doble de las personas adultas que no tienen trabajo. De acuerdo con la Organización Internacional del Trabajo (OIT), el desempleo de personas jóvenes es un problema que sigue empeorando en todo el mundo.

El desempleo crea sus propios peligros sociales debido al sentido de alienación y la inactividad prolongada. Alrededor del 90 % de la gente joven vive dentro de economías en desarrollo (como la de Colombia), donde son vulnerables al subempleo y a la pobreza. “En países en desarrollo”, dice la OIT, “la crisis impregna la vida diaria de la gente pobre”. El número de personas jóvenes atrapada en la pobreza de empleo crece y el ciclo de pobreza de empleo persiste al menos por una generación más. La OIT argumenta que dichas tendencias tendrán “consecuencias significativas para las personas jóvenes dado que los nuevos grupos de jóvenes se unirán a las crecientes filas de desempleados” y advierte del “riesgo de una crisis heredada que creará una ‘generación perdida’ compuesta por gente joven fuera del mercado laboral y que ha perdido la esperanza de trabajar para permitirse una vida decente”.

El estudio de la OIT subraya el costo del desempleo de la gente joven: “Las sociedades están perdiendo su inversión en educación. Los gobiernos están perdiendo las contribuciones a sus sistemas de seguridad social y están gastando más dinero en servicios paliativos”. La gente joven es el impulso del desarrollo económico: “Ignorar el potencial de la gente joven no sólo representa una pérdida económica sino un gran riesgo para la estabilidad social”. El crónico alto número de gente desempleada (casi la mitad de ella sin trabajo por más de un año) es más que un reto económico.

La gente desempleada a largo plazo hace parte de un amplio grupo de personas que se sienten marginadas y sin herramientas para manejar las fuerzas del cambio que ocurre en el mundo. Este grupo de personas tiende a concentrarse en las mismas áreas, disminuyendo así aún más sus oportunidades de recuperación (en el Reino Unido, por ejemplo, la gran mayoría de las personas desempleadas vive en sólo 2000 urbanizaciones). En una sociedad regida por el trabajo, estar sin empleo o la amenaza del desempleo puede producir un agresivo contraataque. En muchos países, hay una tendencia preocupante de desafección y agresión entre la gente joven que asiste a la escuela. En el Reino Unido, por ejemplo, muchos profesionales de la enseñanza escolar se sienten frustrados y desmoralizados: Los resultados de una encuesta reciente muestran que un 66 % de dichos profesionales no quiere trabajar más en las escuelas y 50 % quiere retirarse completamente debido a la baja disciplina en las escuelas. En los Estados Unidos también hay un gran problema de exclusión. En varios centros urbanos los eventos violentos relacionados con pandillas están creciendo. En las ciudades europeas más grandes, la guerra de pandillas se ha convertido en un aspecto endémico de la vida adolescente. Uno de los prospectos más preocupantes es la emergencia de una subclase atrapada en un ciclo de crimen, pobreza y desesperanza. Puede ser un precio muy alto el que hay que pagar para contener la rabia y la frustración de aquellas personas que se sienten marginadas y sin esperanza.

Los Estados Unidos tienen la tasa de encarcelación más alta en el mundo. Un alarmante número: 1 de cada 35 estadounidenses está en el sistema correccional (el cual incluye cárcel, prisión, libertad condicional y supervisión), más del doble que hace 30 años. La población de cárceles y prisiones creció en un 274 %, 2.3 millones en 2008, mientras que el número de personas bajo supervisión creció en un 226 %, 5.1 millones en el mismo año. Los números se concentran en ciertos grupos. Un poco más del 10 % de personas adultas consideradas negras están en el sistema correccional, 4 % de personas adultas consideradas hispanas y 2 % de las personas adultas consideradas blancas. Un largo número de la gente perteneciente a esta proliferante población de personas prisioneras no completó la escuela secundaria, o tuvo que lidiar con analfabetismo o falta de conocimiento matemático, o se desempeñó pobremente durante su educación por dificultades de aprendizaje. Durante los últimos 30 años, el gasto de los estados en el sistema penitenciario ha sido la parte del presupuesto que ha crecido más rápido, después de los gastos en Medicaid (el sistema de salud para personas con bajo ingreso). En California en el 2010, el gasto en el sistema correccional sobrepasó con creces los gastos en todo el sistema de la educación superior pública. Los costos de encarcelamiento son vastamente mayores que los costos de la educación. En promedio, mantener a alguien en prisión cuesta 29000 dólares al año, mientras que un año de educación secundaria se estima en 9000 dólares al año.

Algunos políticos claramente prefieren asumir los costos de encarcelamiento y contención en vez de invertir en el talento de las comunidades marginadas. Sin embargo, desarrollar los talentos y las aspiraciones de aquellas personas que están en problemas es desde todos los aspectos la mejor manera de devolverles su lugar en la sociedad y evitar los recurrentes costos de la reincidencia. Desde todo punto de vista, social, ético y económico, tendría más sentido invertir en mejorar la educación en primer lugar y dar a la gente joven un inicio apropiado en la vida en vez de ahorrar en educación y terminar gastando incomparablemente más en las consecuencias.

Traducido de la versión original en inglés “Out of Our Minds: The Power of Being Creative”, tercera edición, 2017, de Sir Ken Robinson, PhD (nacido en 1958).

Zitat aus Drachenläufer

“Manchmal, wenn Soraya ruhig neben mir schlief, lag ich wach im Bett, horchte auf die Tür mit dem Insektengitter, die im Wind aufschwang und wieder zufiel, auf das Zirpen der Grillen im Garten. Und ich konnte geradezu die Leere in Sorayas Leib spüren, wie ein lebendes, atmendes Ding. Diese Leere hatte sich in unsere Ehe geschlichen, in unser Lachen und in unser Liebesspiel. Und in der Nacht spürte ich in der Dunkelheit unseres Zimmers, wie sie von Soraya aufstieg und sich zwischen uns legte. Zwischen uns schlief. Wie ein neugeborenes Kind.”

Drachenläufer (2004) – Khaled Hosseini (1965). Die Originalausgabe erschien 2003 unter dem Titel The Kite Runner.

Are you really autonomous?

Autonomy*

The attainment of autonomy is manifested by the release or recovery of three capacities: awareness, spontaneity and intimacy.

Awareness

Awareness means the capacity to see a coffeepot and hear the birds sing in one’s own way, and not the way one was taught. It may be assumed on good grounds that seeing and hearing have a different quality for infants than for grownups (1), and that they are more aesthetic and less intellectual in the first’ years of life. A little boy sees and hears birds with delight. Then the “good father” comes along and feels he should “share” the experience and help his son “develop.” He says: “That’s a jay, and this is a sparrow.” The moment the little boy is concerned with which is a jay and which is a sparrow, he can no longer see the birds or hear them sing. He has to see and hear them the way his father wants him to. Father has good reasons on his side, since few people can afford to go through life listening to the birds sing, and the sooner the little boy starts his “education” the better. Maybe he will be an ornithologist when he grows up. A few people, however, can still see and hear in the old way. But most of the members of the human race have lost the capacity to be painters, poets or musicians, and are not left the option of seeing and hearing directly even if they can afford to; they must get it secondhand. The recovery of this ability is called here “awareness.” Physiologically awareness is eidetic perception, allied to eidetic imagery (2). Perhaps there is also eidetic perception, at least in certain individuals, in the spheres of taste, smell and kinesthesia, giving us the artists in those fields: chefs, perfumers and dancers, whose eternal problem is to find audiences capable of appreciating their products.

Awareness requires living in the here and now, and not in the elsewhere, the past or the future. A good illustration of possibilities, in American life, is driving to work in the morning in a hurry. The decisive question is: “Where is the mind when the body is here?” and there are three common cases.

1. The man whose chief preoccupation is being on time is the one who is furthest out. With his body at the wheel of his car, his mind is at the door of his office, and he is oblivious to his immediate surroundings except insofar as they are obstacles to the moment when his soma will catch up with his psyche. This is the Jerk, whose chief concern is how it will look to the boss. If he is late, he will take pains to arrive out of breath. The compliant Child is in command, and his game is “Look How Hard I’ve Tried.” While he is driving, he is almost completely lacking in autonomy, and as a human being he is in essence more dead than alive. It is quite possible that this is the most favorable condition for the development of hypertension or coronary disease.

2. The Sulk, on the other hand, is not so much concerned with arriving on time as in collecting excuses for being late. Mishaps, badly timed lights and poor driving or stupidity on the part of others fit well into his scheme and are secretly welcomed as contributions to his rebellious Child or righteous Parent game of “Look What They Made Me Do.” He, too, is oblivious to his surroundings except as they subscribe to his game, so that he is only half alive. His body is in his car, but his mind is out searching for blemishes and injustices.

3. Less common is the “natural driver,” the man to whom driving a car is a congenial science and art. As he makes his way swiftly and skillfully through the traffic, he is at one with his vehicle. He, too, is oblivious of his surroundings except as they offer scope for the craftsmanship which is its own reward, but he is very much aware of himself and the machine which he controls so well, and to that extent he is alive. Such driving is formally an Adult pastime from which his Child and Parent may also derive satisfaction.

4. The fourth case is the person who is aware, and who will not hurry because he is living in the present moment with the environment which is here: the sky and the trees as well as the feeling of motion. To hurry is to neglect that environment and to be conscious only of something that is still out of sight down the road, or of mere obstacles, or solely of oneself. A Chinese man started to get into a local subway train, when his Caucasian companion pointed out that they could save twenty minutes by taking an express, which they did. When they got off at Central Park, the Chinese man sat down on a bench, much to his friend’s surprise. “Well,” explained the former, “since we saved twenty minutes, we can afford to sit here that long and enjoy our surroundings.” The aware person is alive because he knows how he feels, where he is and when it is. He knows that after he dies the trees will still be there, but he will not be there to look at them again, so he wants to see them now with as much poignancy as possible.

Spontaneity

Spontaneity means option, the freedom to choose and express one’s feelings from the assortment available (Parent feelings, Adult Feelings and Child feelings). It means liberation, liberation from the compulsion to play games and have only the feelings one was taught to have.

Intimacy

Intimacy means the spontaneous, game-free candidness of an aware person, the liberation of the eidetically perceptive, uncorrupted Child in all its naïveté living in the here and now. It can be shown experimentally (3) that eidetic perception evokes affection, and that candidness mobilizes positive feelings, so that there is even such a thing as “one-sided intimacy” – a phenomenon well known, although not by that name, to professional seducers, who are able to capture their partners without becoming involved themselves. This they do by encouraging the other person to look at them directly and to talk freely, while the male or female seducer makes only a well-guarded pretense of reciprocating.

Because intimacy is essentially a function of the natural Child (although expressed in a matrix of psychological and social complications), it tends to turn out well if not disturbed by the intervention of games. Usually the adaptation to Parental influences is what spoils it, and most unfortunately this is almost a universal occurrence. But before, unless and until they are corrupted, most infants seem to be loving (4), and that is the essential nature of intimacy, as shown experimentally.

REFERENCES

  1. Berne, E. “Primal Images & Primal Judgment.” Psychiatric Quarterly. 29: 634-658, 1955.
  2. Jaensch, E. R. Eidetic Imagery. Harcourt, Brace & Company, New York, 1930.
  3. These experiments are still in the pilot stage at the San Francisco Social Psychiatry Seminars. The effective experimental use of transactional analysis requires special training and experience, just as the effective experimental use of chromatography or infrared spectrophotometry does. Distinguishing a game from a pastime is no easier than distinguishing a star from a planet. See Berne, E. “The Intimacy Experiment.” Transactional Analysis Bulletin. 3: 113, 1964. “More About Intimacy.” Ibid. 3: 125, 1964.
  4. Some infants are corrupted or starved very early (marasmus, some colics) and never have a chance to exercise this capacity.

 

* Adapted from: Eric Berne M.D. (1910-1970). Games People Play – The Psychology of Human Relationships (1964). Chapter 16, page 158.

The Shadow: It is as evil as we are positive

“Where there is light, there must be shadow, and where there is shadow there must be light. There is no shadow without light and no light without shadow. Karl Jung said this about ‘the Shadow’ in one of his books: ‘It is as evil as we are positive…the more desperately we try to be good and wonderful and perfect, the more the Shadow develops a definite will to be black and evil and destructive…The fact is that if one tries beyond one’s capacity to be perfect, the Shadow descends to hell and becomes the devil. For it is just as sinful from the standpoint of nature and of truth to be above oneself as to be below oneself.”

1Q84 (Book 2, Chapter 13), 2011Haruki Murakami (1949).

One would be foolish to consider oneself better, or even different…

“One would be foolish to consider oneself better, or even different, merely because one could claim something others could not. The crowdedness of family life and the faithfulness of solitude – both brave decisions, or both decisions of cowardice- make little dent, in the end, on the profound and perplexing loneliness in which every human heart dwells.”

Kinder than solitude (2014), Page 61. Yiyun Li (1972).

Have A Good Time

“Yesterday, it was my birthday.
I hung one more year on the line.
I should be depressed.
My life’s a mess.
But I’m having a good time.

I’ve been loving and loving and loving.
I’m exhausted from loving so well,
I should go to bed.
But a voice in my head says:
“Ah, what the hell”.”

Paul Simon, Have A Good Time, album Still crazy after all these years, released on October 25, 1975.

Life is the game

“Life is the game that must be played:
This truth at least, good friend, we know;
So live and laugh, nor be dismayed
As one by one the phantoms go.”

Ballad By The Fire – Edwin Arlington Robinson (1869 – 1935)

 

General info:

https://www.poets.org/poetsorg/poet/edwin-arlington-robinson

http://www.earobinson.com/pages/HisLife.html